Framework

Field 058: Primary Special Education (PK–5)

The framework that follows is a detailed outline that explains the knowledge and skills that this assessment measures.

Framework

 

graph of percentages of each subarea's weight toward overall test score

Domain Range of Competencies Approximate Percentage of Assessment Score
1 Child Development and Individual Learning Differences 0001–0002 20%
2 Assessment, Progress Monitoring, and Individual Program Planning 0003–0004 20%
3 The Learning Environment and Social-Emotional Learning, Interventions, and Supports 0005–0006 20%
4 Specialized Instructional Planning, Design, and Delivery 0007–0008 20%
5 Professional Relationships and Responsibilities 0009–0010 20%
Domain I–Child Development and Individual Learning Differences

0001 Understand child development and factors that influence human development and learning from birth to age ten (grade five).

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of stages, processes, and progressions related to ways in which development and learning occur across domains (e.g., adaptive, cognitive, social-emotional, sensorimotor, physical, communication).
  2. Apply knowledge of theories and philosophies of development and learning and their application to development and learning across domains (e.g., adaptive, cognitive, social-emotional, sensorimotor, physical, communication) for all students.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of individual differences in development and factors that affect development, learning, communication, and daily living, including the developmental patterns associated with developmental delays, specific disabilities, and giftedness.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of elements of diversity and their significance for development and learning.
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of the complexity and dynamics of family systems; and the roles of parents/guardians as primary caregivers, children's first teachers, and advocates for students with disabilities.
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of the influence of stress and trauma, protective factors, resilience, and supportive relationships on the development of children across all domains (e.g., adaptive, cognitive, social-emotional, sensorimotor, physical, communication).

0002 Understand how children construct knowledge and then use this understanding to create opportunities for children to learn about and explore their world.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of the relationships between development in one domain and development in other domains (e.g., relationships between language development and aspects of cognitive and social-emotional development).
  2. Apply knowledge of the multiple functions of play in children's development and learning and of the role of play in enabling children to meet milestones and progressions across developmental and learning domains.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of the continuum of teaching strategies, from child-initiated activities to adult-guided instruction, for promoting learning; strategies and methods to capitalize on incidental and spontaneous opportunities for teaching; and ways to use the environment, daily routines, and personal and social interactions to support children's development and learning.
  4. Apply knowledge of how to develop activities and instruction that recognize and build upon children's unique strengths, individual interests, backgrounds, and prior knowledge to promote the development of prerequisite skills and positive dispositions toward learning in the content areas.
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of methods that support inclusive practice, equity, respect for, and understanding of diversity across environments.
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of effective practices of communicating, collaborating, and advocating for all students with disabilities and their parents/guardians to achieve students' full potential.
Domain II–Assessment, Progress Monitoring, and Individual Program Planning

0003 Understand formal and informal assessment instruments and procedures for evaluating strengths and needs of students with disabilities in grades PK–5.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of measurement principles, types, and characteristics of formal and informal assessments (e.g., validity, reliability, diagnostic, formative and summative assessments, screenings, rubrics, observations, checklists, portfolio and alternative assessments).
  2. Apply knowledge of methods and practices of gathering formal and informal assessment data from multiple sources to inform appropriate educational decisions, including maintaining ongoing data collection to analyze students' progress toward measurable outcomes (e.g., developing and evaluating interventions, goals, and objectives; progress monitoring behavior and academic progress and appropriate eligibility decisions).
  3. Analyze diagnostic, formative, and summative data (e.g., academic and/or behavior data) to plan, differentiate, and adjust targeted instruction, interventions, and goals and to monitor progress.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of procedures for developing informal assessments and gathering ongoing informal assessment data to support all areas of the curriculum for students with disabilities (e.g., examples of progress monitoring, data collection methods, task analysis, classroom data collection systems, self-assessment).
  5. Apply knowledge of strategies and procedures for administering assessments, including strategies for the use of technology-based assessments and adaptations, and practices for administering standardized assessments.
  6. Apply knowledge of strategies for modifying and adapting assessments, including the use of assistive technology, to accommodate individual students' abilities and needs, including those of students from diverse backgrounds, and the implications of modifications and adaptations to assessment validity and reliability.
  7. Apply knowledge of the appropriate uses and limitations of various types of assessments for evaluating students with disabilities, including strategies for selecting and administering nonbiased assessments and assessment practices (e.g., accessibility, legal and ethical assessment issues, responsible assessment practices).

0004 Understand policies, principles, and procedures related to referral, eligibility, program planning, and placement of students with disabilities in grades PK–5.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of screening, prereferral, referral, and eligibility procedures, including the use of Response to Intervention ( R T I ).
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of components and functions of the Evaluation Team Report ( E T R ), the Individualized Education Program ( I E P ) (e.g., present level of academic achievement and functional performance [ P L A A F P ], transition services plan, annual goals), and the Individualized Family Service Plan ( I F S P ); and the roles of members of the  I E P  team, including related service providers, the general education teachers, parents/guardians, and the student with disabilities.
  3. Apply knowledge of procedures for developing  I E Pees ,  I F S Pees , and other individualized plans (e.g., behavior intervention plans [ B I Pees ]); and criteria and strategies for determining goals and objectives for students with disabilities.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of components of functional behavior assessments ( F B Ayees ) and behavior intervention plans ( B I Pees ), and the ability to use the data and anecdotal record results from  F B Ayees  to develop  B I Pees  and  I E P  goals.
  5. Apply knowledge of the issues, assurances, and due process rights related to assessment, eligibility, and placement within a continuum of services.
  6. Apply knowledge of the continuum of placement and direct and related services for students with disabilities, including knowledge of supports students need for inclusion, transitions, and access in various program placements.
  7. Apply knowledge of strategies for effectively communicating assessment results to parents/guardians and the  I E P  team (e.g., students with disabilities, general education teachers, administrators, related service providers), including culturally and linguistically responsive communication strategies.
Domain III–The Learning Environment and Social Emotional Learning, Interventions, and Supports

0005 Understand practices for establishing positive and productive learning environments for students with disabilities in grades PK–5.

Includes:

  1. Apply knowledge of strategies for structuring the physical environment; establishing and managing routines, procedures, and transitions; addressing and monitoring individual and group behavior; and promoting active participation and independence for students.
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of methods and strategies to create a safe, positive, equitable, and supportive classroom climate that fosters positive interactions and self-motivation and builds relationships between all students (e.g., Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports [ P B I S ]).
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of curricular, environmental, behavioral, and technological accommodations and modifications that promote and support active participation and independence for students with disabilities in the general education setting.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of ways to identify barriers to accessibility to the total school environment (e.g., physical, communication, social barriers), and strategies for providing accommodations and adaptations to, or within, the environment to mediate these barriers.
  5. Apply knowledge of effective methods and strategies for fostering students' active participation and individual academic success in one to one, small group, and large group settings and for facilitating students' inclusion and independence in various settings.
  6. Demonstrate awareness of specialized health and safety practices for students and their care (e.g., personal hygiene; appropriate techniques and body mechanics for ensuring student and teacher comfort and safety in the transferring, lifting, positioning, and seating of students).

0006 Understand strategies and methods for teaching and supporting social emotional competence and developing interpersonal skills for students with disabilities in grades PK–5.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of variables that may affect students' social emotional development (e.g., frustration, low self esteem, communication barriers, environmental factors, chronic illness or health conditions, physical mobility), and identify Multi tiered Systems of Support ( M T S S ) or interventions to address these variables.
  2. Apply knowledge of strategies for developing and enhancing students' ability to manage personal interactions, establish positive relationships with peers and adults, work cooperatively with peers, and understand expectations in various social settings and situations.
  3. Apply knowledge of strategies and practices for developing and promoting students' self awareness, independence, emotional regulation, sense of personal responsibility, and personal ownership of tasks.
  4. Apply knowledge of strategies and practices for developing and promoting students' decision making skills to identify and work toward attainable goals and advocate for their personal needs.
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of activities and methods for developing students' active listening and verbal and nonverbal communication skills to engage productively with peers and adults across environments (e.g., one on one, small groups or large groups, structured and less structured settings).
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of effective proactive and preventative strategies to manage challenging behaviors, including the hierarchy of procedural alternatives (e.g., intervention strategies and crisis prevention, supervision, acknowledgement, prompting, pre correction) when responding to challenging behaviors or when teaching new or replacement behaviors.
  7. Demonstrate knowledge of types, characteristics, strengths, and limitations of various behavioral supports, interventions, and reinforcement techniques, including the principle of using the least intrusive behavior support strategies consistent with the needs of students.
Domain IV–Specialized Instructional Planning, Design, and Delivery

0007 Understand evidence based strategies and practices for developing and implementing effective planning and instruction in a variety of settings for students with disabilities in grades PK–5.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of applicable state and national curriculum standards, including the Ohio's Learning Standards and Ohio's Learning Standards–Extended (OLS-E) for students in grades PK–5.
  2. Apply knowledge of ways to align instruction and identify learning targets, progressions, and entry points to plan and deliver explicit instruction using the Ohio's Learning Standards and Ohio's Learning Standards–Extended ( O L S E ).
  3. Apply knowledge of evidence-based strategies, methods, and activities (e.g., modeling, guided practice, inquiry, scaffolding, prompt hierarchy) to develop effective instructional planning and implementation.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of ways to identify and integrate a variety of technological resources, including digital applications, resources, and augmentative and assistive technology, that facilitate learning for students with diverse needs and abilities and promote student access to and engagement with the curriculum.
  5. Apply knowledge of learning strategies and specialized curricula, materials, and resources for differentiating instruction and providing appropriate scaffolding that promotes student learning, motivation, and achievement.
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of the components of a daily living skills curriculum and how to plan and implement instruction in independent daily living skills.
  7. Demonstrate knowledge of practices and activities that acknowledge student diversity, incorporate and support various learning modalities, and promote independence and learning.

0008 Understand evidence based instructional strategies, methods, and activities for promoting the academic achievement and learning of students with disabilities in grades PK–5.

Includes:

  1. Apply knowledge of evidence based instructional strategies, methods, and activities to strengthen and compensate for needs in attention, perceptual skills, comprehension, memory, and retrieval.
  2. Apply knowledge of strategies and activities for integrating social skills instruction within the academic curriculum and across various settings.
  3. Apply knowledge of strategies and activities for teaching and promoting daily living skills instruction across all settings and instructional domains.
  4. Apply knowledge of evidence based instructional strategies, methods, and activities for teaching essential concepts, vocabulary, and content across the general curriculum.
  5. Apply knowledge of ways to integrate a cross curricular approach to design meaningful and challenging learning opportunities that facilitate students' ability to make connections across disciplines and generalize skills.
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of effective strategies for facilitating maintenance and generalization of learning and academic skills and for helping students recognize relationships across disciplines.
  7. Apply knowledge of evidence based strategies and methods to provide constructive verbal or nonverbal feedback to guide and support students' learning and behavior, increase motivation, improve engagement, and promote learning.
Domain V–Professional Relationships and Responsibilities

0009 Understand ways to develop effective collaboration and communication processes to promote home/school engagement, and engage with members of the school and community to promote the educational achievement of students with disabilities in grades PK–5.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of effective and responsive strategies and methods for establishing, fostering, and maintaining positive communication with all families.
  2. Apply knowledge of the strategies, methods, and activities for involving students and their families in the educational process and for promoting families' participation and engagement in their children's learning, including families from diverse backgrounds.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of evidence based strategies and methods for collaboration and consultation with general education teachers to provide effective instruction and opportunities that address the unique learning needs of students.
  4. Apply knowledge of consultation, collaboration, and communication strategies and methods for working with others in the school community (e.g., related service providers, community based preschool service providers, community agencies, volunteers) in planning and providing quality instruction and engagement that addresses all students' goals and needs.
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of the role of the paraprofessional in providing support to students with unique academic, physical, or behavioral needs; and ways to promote communication and collaboration to effectively address students' goals.

0010 Understand the professional responsibilities and legal and ethical issues relevant to teaching students with disabilities in grades PK–5.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of the roles and responsibilities of teachers of students with disabilities (e.g., program coordination, scheduling, record keeping, service delivery options, managing caseloads, mediation, crisis prevention and intervention, engaging in professional development activities, advocacy).
  2. Apply knowledge of special education and related laws and regulations (e.g., Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act [ A D A ], the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [ I D E A ], the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act [ F E R P A ]).
  3. Apply knowledge of the ethical principles and professional practices related to the education of students with disabilities (e.g., relating to behavior management, mandated reporting, confidentiality, student and family rights, responsibilities of stakeholders, inclusion, equity, and due process).
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of effective strategies for engaging in reflection and self assessment activities to identify one's own strengths and needs, become aware of cultural biases and differences, improve instruction, and determine goals for professional growth.
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of agencies that can provide specialized materials, resources, networking, and other services to students with disabilities and their families.