Framework

Field 057: Assessment of Professional Knowledge: Primary Education (PK–5)

The framework that follows is a detailed outline that explains the knowledge and skills that this assessment measures.

Framework

 

graph of percentages of each subarea's weight toward overall test score

Domain Range of Competencies Approximate Percentage of Assessment Score
1 Child Development, Diversity, and Learning
•Case Study
0001–0003 24%
10%
2 Assessment, Instruction, and the Learning Environment
•Case Study
0004–0008 40%
10%
3 The Professional Environment 0009–0010 16%
Domain I–Child Development, Diversity, and Learning

0001 Understand how students grow and develop, and variations in patterns of the stages of child development and learning, and how to apply this knowledge to promote student achievement.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of developmental milestones and developmental variation in the physical, adaptive (e.g., self help), cognitive, linguistic, and social emotional domains and their significance for early learning and instructional decision making.
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of the ways in which a student's development and learning in one domain may affect the student's development and performance in other domains.
  3. Apply knowledge of various instructional strategies, approaches, and learning goals in relation to the developmental characteristics and needs of students.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of the stages of cognitive development, including the concept of readiness for learning, and how to plan learning experiences that promote students' cognitive development and acknowledge each student's strengths, interests, and needs.
  5. Apply knowledge of the roles of play, social interaction, physical activity, and hands on experiences in learning; and the ways to integrate opportunities of play, social interaction, physical activity, and hands on experiences into instructional activities throughout the curriculum.

0002 Understand learning processes and methods for providing instructional experiences that promote students' development, learning, and achievement.

Includes:

  1. Apply knowledge of processes by which students construct meaning and develop skills, including the use of different types of learning strategies and various types of play, and techniques for making knowledge accessible and meaningful for all students.
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of strategies and methods to provide opportunities for all students to demonstrate their learning and understanding in different ways and to incorporate varying modalities and multiple pathways to achieve instructional goals (e.g., Universal Design for Learning [ U D L ]).
  3. Identify strategies and resources, including technologies, for facilitating learning for all students in given instructional contexts.
  4. Apply knowledge of strategies for promoting students' development of independent thinking and learning, reflection, and higher order thinking skills; organizational and time management skills; and sense of ownership and responsibility toward their own learning.
  5. Demonstrate awareness of factors in the home, school, and community that can affect students' development and learning and the implications of these factors for teaching and learning.

0003 Understand student diversity and how to provide learning opportunities and environments that are responsive to student differences and diverse families, promote all students' learning, and foster students' appreciation of and respect for diversity.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of ways to work respectfully and reciprocally with families to gain a holistic knowledge of students to facilitate and promote development, learning, and motivation.
  2. Apply knowledge of strategies for creating a positive, supportive environment for all students while promoting students' understanding of, and appreciation and respect for, diversity within the classroom, school, and community.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of strategies for enhancing one's own awareness of students' diverse backgrounds and needs; resources in the classroom, school, and community for meeting individual students' needs; and strategies for connecting students and their families to these resources.
  4. Identify strategies for working and interacting effectively in various classroom contexts with all students, including students with diverse characteristics, needs, and assets.
  5. Apply knowledge of strategies for planning and adapting instruction that is responsive to the characteristics, skills, strengths, and needs of all students and for ensuring that all students have access to, and participate fully in, classroom life and activities.
Domain II–Assessment, Instruction, and the Learning Environment

0004 Understand formal and informal assessment instruments and practices, the relationship between assessment and instruction, and how to use assessment to guide instruction and monitor and communicate students' learning progress.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of measurement principles to support the development, administration, and analysis of formative and summative assessments, such as reliability, validity, and bias; and the characteristics, uses, advantages, and limitations of various types of assessments (e.g., formal, informal, formative, summative).
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of appropriate assessment instruments and practices for given instructional situations or needs, including advantages and limitations of various types of assessments, and how to select or construct assessment instruments for various purposes.
  3. Apply knowledge of strategies for integrating assessment and instruction, aligning assessment with instructional goals, and using assessment to monitor student understanding and to guide instruction.
  4. Analyze formative and summative data to plan, differentiate, and adjust targeted instruction and interventions and monitor student progress.
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of the benefits of using multiple assessment methods to support instruction and appropriate strategies for adapting classroom assessments for students with various characteristics and needs, including English learners and students with exceptionalities.
  6. Apply knowledge of strategies for providing students with timely, accurate, and effective feedback and for helping students use teacher assessment, peer assessment, and self assessment to guide their own learning.
  7. Demonstrate knowledge of how to interpret assessment results and how to communicate assessment results to students and their families.

0005 Understand principles and methods of curricular and instructional planning and how to design and implement instruction that promotes all students' development, learning, and achievement.

Includes:

  1. Identify procedures used in curricular planning and decision making, such as defining scope and sequence, determining prerequisite knowledge and skills, developing a coherent sequence of lessons, and aligning the curriculum with content standards.
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of key factors to consider in instructional planning, including Ohio's Early Learning & Development Standards: Birth to Kindergarten Entry and Ohio's Learning Standards (kindergarten through grade 5); and ways to align instruction to include students' characteristics, development, prior experiences, current knowledge and skills, and readiness to learn.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of how to define developmentally appropriate learning goals, select effective instructional approaches, and explicitly link learning activities to those defined goals.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of strategies and methods to adjust curriculum goals and lesson objectives; align instruction; and identify learning targets, progressions, and entry points to plan and deliver explicit instruction to students with significant learning needs using the Ohio Learning Standards–Extended ( O L S E ), as stated in an Individualized Education Program ( I E P ).
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of the benefits of and strategies for integrating curricula, creating interdisciplinary units of study, and planning inquiry based learning experiences that provide students with opportunities to explore content from integrated and varied perspectives.
  6. Apply knowledge of effective lesson and unit plans and their characteristics, such as logical sequence, completeness, and feasibility.
  7. Apply knowledge of strategies for integrating accommodations to curriculum and instruction based on students' learning characteristics and needs and for adapting lessons to ensure the success of all students.

0006 Understand principles and methods associated with various instructional approaches and how to apply these principles and methods to promote all students' development and their achievement of instructional goals.

Includes:

  1. Identify the characteristics, uses, benefits, and limitations of various instructional approaches, such as direct instruction, cooperative learning, inquiry, and class discussion, including the use of a variety of grouping practices.
  2. Apply knowledge of how to organize, differentiate, and implement instruction that promotes the ability of all students to achieve learning goals; and how to continuously monitor instructional effectiveness and respond flexibly to students' understanding, engagement, and feedback.
  3. Apply knowledge of strategies, methods, and activities to differentiate instruction and engagement supports to promote learning and achievement for students who are at risk.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of how to provide instruction that promotes higher order thinking and creativity; encourages independent thinking and learning; enhances students' ability to synthesize knowledge, solve problems, and acquire, analyze, and organize information; and helps students work cooperatively and productively.
  5. Demonstrate knowledge of the ways to effectively integrate technology, including digital applications and activities, to meet instructional goals and differentiate instruction to engage and support student learning.
  6. Apply knowledge of how to use appropriate criteria to evaluate instructional resources and materials, including digital and technological resources, and how to select resources and materials to meet various instructional needs.

0007 Understand principles and practices of motivation and communication and how to apply these principles and practices effectively to promote students' active engagement and learning.

Includes:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; strategies for gaining students' attention and promoting their motivation to learn; and effective ways to use constructive feedback to guide learning, increase motivation, and improve engagement.
  2. Apply knowledge of the relationship between direct engagement in learning and students' interest in lessons and of procedures for enhancing relevance and promoting intrinsic motivation to learn.
  3. Recognize factors and situations that tend to promote or diminish student motivation, appropriate ways to apply various motivational strategies, and the expected outcomes of different strategies in given situations.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of factors such as age, development, disability, gender, sexual orientation, race, nationality, ethnicity, and religion; and cultural, economic, geographic, and linguistic backgrounds that can affect classroom communication and methods for interacting effectively with all students to achieve specified communication goals, such as clarifying content, communicating high expectations for learning, building students' self esteem, and promoting a climate of collaboration and support.
  5. Apply knowledge of communication strategies for meeting specific instructional needs, including providing instructional supports and scaffolding opportunities, and for promoting understanding and engagement of all students in learning.
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of skilled questioning and how to use various questioning techniques and activities to achieve instructional goals, such as facilitating recall, stimulating curiosity, encouraging divergent thinking, and promoting higher order thinking and creativity.

0008 Understand how to structure and manage the classroom to establish a safe, inclusive, and positive learning environment; and strategies and methods for promoting all students' social emotional competence and development of interpersonal skills.

Includes:

  1. Apply knowledge of strategies and procedures for creating a safe, supportive, and inclusive learning environment that encourages students' active engagement, risk taking, and collaboration in learning.
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of strategies for promoting positive student interactions, facilitating conflict resolution, and promoting students' understanding and application of ethical principles such as honesty, courtesy and respect, academic and personal integrity, and civic responsibility.
  3. Apply knowledge of strategies for developing and promoting students' self awareness, self management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision making skills.
  4. Apply knowledge of effective strategies for organizing the physical environment of the classroom to promote learning and communication, including ways to manage class schedules and transitions, and to address routine tasks and unanticipated situations.
  5. Apply knowledge of strategies and activities for helping students acquire and apply efficient learning strategies, including developing goal setting, problem solving, and coping skills.
  6. Demonstrate understanding of the importance of classroom social norms, expectations, and routines; and ways to effectively involve students in designing classroom procedures that ensure safety and develop positive interpersonal interactions and communication.
Domain III–The Professional Environment

0009 Understand how to establish partnerships and collaborate effectively with students' families, colleagues, and members of the community to enhance and support students' development and learning.

Includes:

  1. Apply knowledge of strategies for developing partnerships with students' families to support students' development and learning and for encouraging and facilitating the involvement of families in their children's education.
  2. Demonstrate knowledge of the importance of developing positive and collaborative relationships with all students and their families, including facilitating effective school home communication, and strategies for fostering and maintaining effective communication with all students' families.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of strategies for conducting effective conferences with students' families; addressing the concerns of families in various contexts; and interacting effectively and appropriately with all families, including those with diverse characteristics, needs, and assets.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of effective methods for establishing and maintaining supportive, collaborative relationships with professional colleagues as a member of the learning community.
  5. Apply knowledge of how to collaborate effectively with others in the school community to meet students' and families' needs and enhance student achievement.
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of ways to collaborate effectively with local community agencies, when and where appropriate, to promote a positive school environment.

0010 Understand roles and expectations for professional educators, legal and ethical guidelines, and strategies for continuous professional growth and self reflection.

Includes:

  1. Apply knowledge of the rights and responsibilities of teachers, students, and parents/guardians in various educational contexts.
  2. Apply knowledge of the ethical principles and professional practices related to the educational setting, including ensuring educational equity for all students, maintaining the confidentiality of students' records and personal information, mandated reporting, and due process.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of various types of professional organizations and professional development opportunities and resources, including research; action research; interactions with mentors, supervisors, and colleagues; and their use in enhancing professional knowledge, skills, and expertise.
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of important dispositions associated with effective teaching and strategies for using reflection and self assessment to identify teaching strengths and challenges and to improve professional practice.